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吃什么最“健康”?专家和你想的不一样

我们针对美国人和一组营养专家进行问卷调查,询问他们觉得哪些食物对身体好,哪些不好。

爆米花对身体好吗?披萨、橙汁或者寿司呢?冷冻酸奶、连骨猪排或藜麦怎么样?

哪些食物是健康的?原则上讲,这是个很简单的问题,希望吃得更健康的人应该会知道该在超市选什么食物,避开什么。

可惜答案绝没那么简单。

美国食品与药品管理局(The Food and Drug Administration)最近同意重新审视它有关何为 “健康”食物的标准,这一举措凸显出我们的营养知识在最近几年发生了多大的变化——以及还有多少是未知的。

我们和媒体与民调公司晨间顾问(Morning Consult)一起对数百名营养学家 ——美国营养学会(American Society for Nutrition)的成员 ——做问卷调查,询问他们是否认为某种食物(约50种)是健康的。

晨间顾问也在美国选民中选取有代表性的人群做问卷调查,向他们征询了同样的问题。

结果显示意见非常多样,令人意外,即便在专家群体内也是如此。没错,几乎所有人都认为羽衣甘蓝、苹果和燕麦等一些食物是“健康的”;汽水、炸薯条和巧克力曲奇则不是。但在介于二者之间的区域,一些食物似乎得益于正面的公众观念,而其他的则让公众和专家都感到困惑。(说的就是你,黄油。)

有关营养,“20年前,我认为我们知道大约10%我们需要知道的东西,”塔夫茨大学弗里德曼营养科学与政策学院(Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University)院长达柳什 ·莫扎法里安(Dariush Mozaffarian)说。 “现在我们知道40%或50%。”

以下是我们的发现。

 

 

在我们请求专家和公众评分的52种常见食物中,没有什么比燕麦棒获得的评价差异更大。在参与调查的普通美国人中,有超过70%认为它是健康的,但只有不到三分之一的营养专家也这么想。对麦片的看法同样存在这种巨大的差异,少于一半的受调查营养学家认为它是健康的。

相比于专家,普通美国人认为更健康的几种食物——冻酸奶、速瘦(SlimFast)奶昔、燕麦棒等——有一些共同特征:他们包含很多额外的糖分。今年5月,美国食品与药品管理局宣布了营养标示的新样板,其中一项优先项是明确区分食物中自然产生的糖分和后来为了加强口味而加入的糖分。(你会惊讶于有那么多食物包含额外的糖。)有可能营养学家明白这一点,而公众还不知道。

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