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我研究的在美国开公司的步骤和报税情况

本文根据美国小企业局(Small Business Administration)的文章  How to Register Your Small Business in Five Steps  和笔者对在美国开公司的一些认识整理。

免责声明: 我不是CPA,也不是财务会计出身,只是因为出于要做business,想了解在美国怎么注册搞公司,所以才花了很多时间研究的。下面的信息纯属个人研究结果,不负法律责任哈

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首先谈谈为什么要在美国注册公司的问题。在美国做生意,不一定要注册公司。但很多生意,比如说,网上卖产品啥的,都牵扯责任的。注册了公司,因为公司是limited liability的,客户打官司的话,只有公司赔钱,个人不会承担任何责任。而不注册公司仅以个人名义做生意的话,搞不好连家里的房子都要赔上去。所以说,注册公司,最大的好处是规避责任。

有人认为注册公司可以用来省税。这个其实是本末倒置的想法。公司是用来做事业的,不是仅仅用来避税的。注册公司不一定能省税的。

下面就分门别类的说说在美国注册公司的情况和常见问题.

美国公司种类

首先根据笔者的理解,略谈一下美国公司的类别. 大类分无限责任公司和有限责任公司。

无限责任公司包括:

-Sole Proprietorship (一人独资): 一般做independent contractor, consultant或者freelancer,可以选择这个。不需要提交任何表格,就可以开始经营了。报税就是在个人报税的Form 1040 Schedule C上报就行。这种公司形式setup最简单,也最容易撤销. (如果是single-member LLC的话,也是按照sole proprietor报税的,就是一样的填写Schedule C).

-General Partnership (两人或多人经营的)

有限责任公司主要包括:

-LLC: 这种公司类型非常简单明了,对于small business来说,这个是比较合适的一种形式, 外国人注册LLC也是非常合适的。LLC在owner上没有限制,外国人也可以作为owner. LLC可以是member managed,可以是manager managed. 这样,owner可以直接以member的身份管理LLC, 不需要董事会等麻烦的东西. 另外,LLC不需要雇人。一个人也可以了。

税收上,LLC在成立之初有3种选择:

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