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淺談中國詩詞和打油詩

淺談中國詩詞和打油詩

近年讀了些中國詩詞的散文和相關深入的觀察,譬如美學大師蔣勳的《生活理的唐詩》、張曼娟和黃羿瓅合著的《唐詩樂遊園》、胡乃介的《中國詩詞欣賞》等,略有心得。再加上一個偶然的機會看到河北衛視 2013年底推出「中華好詩詞」文化綜藝節目後,才知道海內華人有高度點看率。我對 中國詩詞和打油詩一直都感興趣,偶而也寫打油詩當作遊記。對中國詩詞文辭的優美和平仄的音韻非常欣賞,也常幫助孫兒女解釋唐詩。海外華人兒童背誦唐詩也很普遍。特將對中國詩詞的一點心得淺談於此。

古典詩詞:中國古詩詞約可分為三類:古典詩詞、楔子詩詞和打油詩。古典詩詞的代表作是唐詩宋詞。漢字總數約85,000字,「常用字」只2500個、加上「次常用字」1000個,所以識得 3500字就能閱讀書報。《全唐詩》有四萬九千首,在漢字結構的限制下,有人估計詩詞題目和優美文字的排列組合都快用完。唐詩的派別和代表人物有:

【浪漫派】尋求心靈的絕對自由:李白

【社會派】悲天憫人的胸襟:杜甫、白居易、元稹、劉禹錫

【田園派】吟詠自然的山水風光:王維、孟浩然、劉長卿、韋應物、柳宗元

【邊塞派】描寫戰爭和邊塞景物:王之渙、王昌齡、高適、岑參

【奇險派】詩句爭奇鬥險:韓愈、賈島、孟郊

【綺情派】追求詞藻華麗唯美:杜牧、李商隱、李賀

旅美學者朱琦,是我在加州上【中國文化歷史講座】的老師,最近作演講,對唐詩有很好的詮釋:「中國歷史到唐代而臻于極盛,中國詩歌也在唐代達到頂峰,唐詩展現了唐人豐富飽滿、浪漫飛揚的心靈,也展現了唐人不斷創新、千變萬化的審美境界。初唐的王勃、陳子昂已顯示出恢宏博大的時空意識,盛唐的王之渙、王昌齡更擅長在短小的絕句中轉換時空鏡頭,王維則融匯了繪畫、音樂和詩歌。詩至李白、杜甫而爐火純青,中、晚唐詩人唯有不斷突破,另闢蹊徑。韓愈、孟郊追求險怪硬語盤空,白居易、元稹追求淺淡而通俗易懂,李賀擎著幻想的神燈照亮了神仙世界和鬼蜮世界,李商隱把人生的萬般心緒濃縮在朦朧含蓄的格律詩中。唐人窮盡詩歌藝術之變,今天勾勒這一演變過程,應該也是如飲醇醪的藝術享受。」朱老師這麼深入的暸解、實在難得。

對於像我一般普通知識分子,其實讀通《唐詩三百首》已經很好了,而許多名詩詞,僅用少數簡單字語。下面是幾首我最喜歡的作品:李白所作《靜夜思》,「床前明月光,疑是地上霜。舉頭望明月,低頭思故鄉。」全詩20字,其中明、月、頭3字重覆使用,所以只有17字,言簡意賅,是最優美的短信(short

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